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Symptoms, Cause, Stages And Complications

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Diabetes is a chronic health condition. Be it lifestyle choices or food habits, there has been an increased risk of diabetes among all age groups, across the globe.

There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes (the pancreas stops making insulin), Type 2 Diabetes (caused due to insulin resistance) and Gestational Diabetes (diabetes in pregnant women). This article curates the stages of type 2 diabetes and some of its complications.

According to an article published by Healthline, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists created the dysglycemia-based chronic disease (DBCD) multimorbidity care model in 2018 which consisted of four distinct stages. The DBCD model helps doctors take preventive measures to reduce the complications of type 2 diabetes.

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The stages of type 2 diabetes are:

Stage 1: The first stage of type 2 diabetes is when muscle, fat and liver cells become resistant to insulin and have trouble bringing glucose into the cell. However, the pancreas can balance it out by producing more insulin that helps maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Stage 2: The prediabetes stage is where cells become fully resistant to insulin. This causes the blood sugar levels to rise despite the pancreas producing more insulin. In some cases, this stage might also include the occurrence of beta cell dysfunction. The blood glucose levels at this stage are higher than normal.

Stage 3: This is the diagnosis stage of type 2 diabetes. Without treatment, insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction together can cause severe long-term damage to the body.

Stage 4: Vascular complications occur during this stage. High blood sugar levels lead to the vascular system being damaged, which can cause complications such as chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, albuminuria, heart failure, stroke and peripheral neuropathy, among others.

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